Audio-Vidéo : cfcs-1207-23
Wich animals do farmers need for tropical mixed systems in the Caribbean ?
Auteur(s) : Mandonnet, Nathalie
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: INRA : Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Université des Antilles. Service commun de la documentation
Extrait de : "52ème Congrès de la CFCS : 52nd Annual Meeting of The Caribbean Food Crops" : congrès, le 10 - 16 juillet 2016, INRA, CFCS
Description : In the Global South, improvement of agricultural outputs is eagerly awaited. While by 2050, its population will double areas devoted to agriculture will decrease exacerbating undernutrition of the poor. Unfortunately, the demand for fresh locally-produced meat products is not satisfied yet in the tropics. So, efficiency in animal productions is essential to allow coverage of protein nutritional needs of people, both in quality and quantity. In the Caribbean territories mixed farming systems are the most common farming systems (about 80%) and can constitute a solution to reach food sovereignty in such limited and isolated spaces. Lessons to be learned from these systems involve improving animal performance while respecting the natural balance with environment and maintaining the multi-functionality of plants and animals. Firstly, the natural (or selected) comfort zone of animal and plants must fit with the farm conditions, insuring thereby animal survival and welfare. Enhancement of adaptation to stresses (biotic, abiotic and socio- economic) in species or animal genotypes is a key element implying their equilibrium with the farm environment. This approach underpins for the farmer an integrated management of animal health, nutrition, genetics, reproduction, in close relationship with other compartments of the farming system. Secondly, animal adaptation may be completed by resilience ability within systems. Animals have to produce although facing stresses. Finally, the animal must be efficient that is to say must reconcile physiological functions of production, reproduction with adaptation functions. This optimization leads to decreased inputs and to overall efficiency of mixed farming systems at the end. The aim of the breeder is to choose the animal producing the best balance between output-reproduction-adaptation, at the individual or the flock scale combining genetic and physiological diversity. The underlying idea is to give to humans and animals their right place in the food chain taking into account the farmers? skills and wills. This idea is included in the agroecological approach and may give guidelines for food sovereignty worldwide.
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